This is a good educational piece for anyone who is using Windows 10.
Having issues with Windows 10? Well, we’ve got some answers for you here…
This is a good educational piece for anyone who is using Windows 10.
Having issues with Windows 10? Well, we’ve got some answers for you here…
If you receive the error 1935, take the following steps-
Need a free partition software to partition or re-partition a hard drive? Here’s an excellent piece of software that saved us a ton of time on one of our servers and helped Mickey with a friend’s project. Cost – Free
Delete all partitions
Set partition label
Change drive letter
Remove drive letter
Convert file system
View disk/partition properties
For – Windows 2000 Professional SP4, Windows XP/Vista/Windows 7/8, Windows Small Business Server 2011/2008/2003, Windows Home Server and Windows Server 2000/2003/2008 (32-bit and 64-bit).
Easy to use but for advanced users.
Microsoft Research TCP Analyzer (Link) is a network analyzer that allows you to analyze network traces of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connections. Given a Microsoft Network Monitor trace, the analyzer provides various performance statistics and visualizations for the captured TCP connection. This app also gives a time plot and an explanation of the individual plots.
Below is an Example of Microsoft Network Monitor capturing packets on a wireless network. Notice the information about the wireless (-60 dBm) in the first picture. In the second picture you can see information on a captured packet (firefox.exe and the destination IP address).
TCP Analyzer which as stated requires Microsoft’s Network Monitor to installed first.
To USE TCP Analyzer
Want to see the TOP Users of your Network?
You can also find your Top Users (top 10) by using this expert (download)-
Charting Download (must have .NET 3.5)
*this software was tested on Windows 7 Professional but will work with Windows Vista or Windows XP.
Did you know that you can sort in Microsoft Excel by using colors? For example, Excel can sort by cell color, font color, cell icon, and values. If you want to learn quickly how this works, follow the source link below at PCWorld.
Can Excel Sort by Color? How to Fill Color and use Sort & Filter’s Custom Sort | PCWorld
There are dozens of tips on the web from MTU size to tweaking network card or wireless router alternate firmware. What isn’t covered a lot is DNS queries. DNS or Domain Name Services is used when you type the ‘friendly’ name (url) into your address bar of your browser. The friendly name goes out onto the worldwide web to your ISPs DNS servers where it is changed to an IP address and routing then takes place.
How can you improve this? Here’s some ideas. When programming your router, you can statically define the DNS servers in your router and disable DNS Relay. This will cause the dhcp leases to contain the hard coded ip addresses of the DNS servers you typed in instead of the router’s ip address (leaving DNS relay on, your router will act as the go between). With several combinations, which is best?
If your router has a SPI firewall, the impact of this is that the stateful-packet-inspection (SPI) table will have to track additional DNS(Port:53) streams as each individual device (tablet, computer, smartphone, smart TV) makes its unique request (websites typed into the address bar) directly to the DNS servers on the Internet.
You can program your router with several options. Here are a few combinations.
|DNS Relay on Your router||DNS Servers entered into the
|Enabled||Yes||Computers receive fixed local DNS server number. Your router can immediately proxy dns queries and you can travel directly to your site. Use your router’s IP as the first DNS address and a public DNS as the secondary. Fastest||DNS servers (secondary) could change (rare) and become out of date|
|Enabled||No||Computers receive fixed local DNS server. Router receives update-to-date DNS entries.||Some small delay in querying a website|
|Disabled||Yes||Computers receive fixed DNS servers.||DNS queries are now part of your standard traffic and are inspected by the SPI engine. Can be slower.|
|Disabled||No||Computers receive your ISP’s update-to-date dns server entries if known.||Request pass through to outside DNS servers and can be slower|
If you need to check your DNS entries after you save your router’s settings, in Windows, go to a command prompt and type ipconfig /all. Running Linux? Type ifconfig to get your IP address or cat /etc/resolv.conf to get your ip address and dns information after you program and reboot your router.
Why? The Golden Question
All over the internet you will find information on ‘How to Subnet’. Suddenly you are thrown into a world of bits and binary and given charts of ‘How to Subnet’. But why do you subnet?
Subnets are created to separate areas of your network for security and/or to hold down broadcasts. Computers constantly ‘talk’ to each other. If you have a network of 10 computers, the talking (opening files or programs) or broadcasting packets that are sent out during networking is not much traffic at all. However if you have 10,000 computers talking and passing data, you will have thousands of computers passing data and your network will slow down from all of the information. If you still don’t understand, invite 10 friends over for a get together. It’ll get noisy but you can still hear every conversation. Now, go to a rock concert with 10,000 screaming fans. Get the picture.
Subnetting allows you to divide areas of your network out to prevent this. So here comes the golden question. How can you get them to ‘talk’ when you need to? With the installation of a Layer 3 Switch or a router, these subnets can talk.
And for all of the folks who know a ton of details on the subject, this is just an example for people who are searching why to subnet.
Other Ways to Divide Your Network
Are there other ways to divide your network? You can use VLANs. Devices such as switches allow virtual lans to be set up. By purchasing managed switches, you can separate different areas of your network thus separating areas for security and holding down traffic.
So now I know why – but how and don’t give me binary and all the fuzzy stuff!
The best explaination I have found is at this link. A simple chart with examples!
Here’s my example –
Subnetting allows your network to become more efficient and allows you to separate your network by subnets.
Let’s say your network is on a 192.168.1.x numbering scheme.
How do you know what your network is? Open a command prompt and type ipconfig. See the gateway? That is your starting number for your network. The network allows 254 computers to be in the broadcast domain.
So if you do an ipconfig and see this-
192.168.1.125 – your ip address
255.255.255.0 – your current subnet
192.168.1.1 – your gateway (This is your router or firewall – the point leading to the internet)
Now let’s say you have 20 devices in your network. How can you effectively hold down broadcast and prevent your router from building tables for each device? How can you make it more effective and hold down traffic? Actually without understanding binary, you can do this. Remember this is basics and should help you understand.
You see under the current network, you can have 254 devices in your network. Printers, routers, computers, tablets, netbooks, notebooks, etc. The last set of numbers called an octet only goes from 1-254. But lets narrow this down.
You can use a CIDR calculator online to determine how to tweak your network. A good site is Subnet Calculator. Go there and enter your router’s number in the ip field. Now go down and enter a number close to the number of devices you have on your network. In this example, enter 30.
Did you see where the subnet changed to 255.255.255.224? (Did you notice that 224 + 30 is 254?)
Ok, now open your adapter settings by clicking the network icon at the bottom right corner and selecting Open Network and Sharing Center.
Now click on the adapter settings.
Right click and select properties on your adapter that is active.
Now select Internet Protocol v4
Enter an ip address statically (manually put it in). Put in your new subnet and your gateway. You must also put in your DNS or a public DNS server. You should keep a list of each devices number to avoid any problems. All ip addresses must be different on each device.
The only valid numbers in this broadcast domain now is – 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1.2, 192.168.1.3 continuing until you get to 192.168.1.30 (remember you chose to have up to 30 devices on your network.) If you enter any number above this, you will get an error.
Error screen showing an ip address above what you selected.
If you get the above error screen, you have entered an invalid number.
After you select a number between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.30, click OK and exit all screens by clicking OK.
If you do an ipconfig now, you will see this-
When you change subnets as the above example shows, you have to remember that you may lose connectivity to devices such as routers or network printers. You will need to set devices such as servers and these devices on the same subnet so that whoever is assigned this subnet can communicate with them.
This by no means is a thorough subnetting lesson. It can become much more complex by introducing multiple routers into your network, DHCP servers or other devices. This is a simple how-to that shows you how broadcast domains can be more efficient.
Now one more thing. Want to know how to subnet? You can use the magic number method.
Secure your devices. Bottom-line, there are malicious users on the web that can find your device (webcams, IP cameras, routers, SCADA and other devices). Change the default passwords and update software/firmware when it is available. Disable UPNP and look for vulnerabilities that may affect your device.
CNN’s Money on “Hacking anything connected to the internet”
Windows not Activating? Go to a command prompt as an administrator and type the following:
Need to speed your internet up or tweak your network out? Here’s some things to take into consideration. Something called Silly Window Syndrome can occur if a server or workstation that has a shared files has high latency.
You see, when there is no synchronization between the workstation and a server (or ws to ws) regarding the capacity of the flow of data being sent or the packet size, Silly Window Syndrome can occur.
Here’s where Nagle’s algorithm is used if the Silly Window Syndrome occurs from the sender. You can make sure it is enabled by running the script below from a command line (as administrator). Nagle will send the first segment even if it is tiny. Then it’ll wait for the acknowledgement (known as an ACK) is received or a MSS is accumulated. (MSS – maximum sized segment)
You see, Nagle’s algorithm works by improving TCP efficiency. This algorithm reduces the number of small packets being sent over a network.
So what if the delays are caused by the receiver? David D Clark’s solution can be and is used. Clark’s solution closes the window until another segment of MSS can be received or if the buffer becomes half empty.
Now there something else – Delayed ACK tries to send more data over a segment if it can. Here’s the problem. the interaction of Delayed ACK with Nagle’s algorithm can create 200+ ms delays.
How do I?
Run this from a command line as an administrator to turn off Nagle’s algorithm
REG ADD HKey_Local_Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\ /v TcpAckFrequency /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f
REG ADD HKey_Local_Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\ /v TCPNoDelay /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f
taskkill /f /im explorer.exe
Run this from a command line as an administrator to turn on Nagle’s algorithm
REG ADD HKey_Local_Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\ /v TcpAckFrequency /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
REG ADD HKey_Local_Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\ /v TCPNoDelay /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
taskkill /f /im explorer.exe
There’s several other things you can do for latency –
Remember always optimize your network before you throw hardware at the problem.
Also, don’t worry, Karn’s algorithm will be working when computers are talking. It basically measures time from point A and B and if there is a delay, it’ll say ‘hello’ again to try and get a response.
If you have an application you need to access that uses TCP across the network, you may be able to speed it up by enabling TcpAckFrequency and/or TcpNoDelay in the registry. –
Open regedit and then find-
Make sure you find the correct interface for your active network connection.One way is to look at the IP Addresses listed until you find the correct interface.
On the right window, create a DWORD32 for-
Always make sure you measure your network speed before you make changes to set a baseline. Measure the speed after you make changes. How do you measure it? Put the following software on the workstation and server. Totusoft’s Lanspeed
An easy solution from 2014!
Ever run into a virus that won’t let you open the desktop or go into Safe Mode? This solution will work on many of these viruses and not necessarily on all viruses or malware.
Hit – control-alt-delete key
Run the task manager
If you type or browse to explorer.exe, this may let you have the desktop. If NOT, have a flashdrive that has your tools (portable – malwarebytes, ADWCleaner, superantispyware or other tools and navigate to the tool – you may also have RKill on the drive to kill processes that are malicious) and navigate to the tool of your choice.
Run multiple tools until the malware is removed.
Need to optimize your network? Look at adjusting LocalPriority, HostPriority, DNSPriority or NetBTPriority. (Host/DNS resolution)
The tweak works by increasing the priority of four processes.
LocalPriority = 4 (DWORD, the default is 499, change to 4)
HostPriority = 5 (DWORD, the default is 500, change to 5)
DnsPriority = 6 (DWORD, the default is 2000, change to 6)
NetbtPriority = 7 (DWORD, the default is 2001, change to 7)
You can use this script at a command prompt (as Admin) or in PowerShell (as Admin)-
reg add HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\TcpIp\ServiceProvider /v “LocalPriority” /t REG_DWORD /D 4 /F
reg add HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\TcpIp\ServiceProvider /v “HostsPriority” /t REG_DWORD /D 5 /F
reg add HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\TcpIp\ServiceProvider /v “DnsPriority” /t REG_DWORD /D 6 /F
reg add HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\TcpIp\ServiceProvider /v “NetBtPriority” /t REG_DWORD /D 7 /F
taskkill /f /im explorer.exe
Diagnosing your network? Here’s a GUI program to ping and get averages and speeds over a period of time – nine years ago we featured Performance Pinging by Carsten Schmidt and cannot find a working website from the author to download this program. Fortunately, SnapFiles has the program available.
The program is an excellent portable utility that measures ping and transfer speeds on your network.
Microsoft did recommend to disable short names in a security guide some times back. There is evidence that file operations in directories (folders) that contain a large number of file can be slowed by short file name creations. So does it improve performance? The short answer – Yes.
Now should you disable short names? This answer is going to be on a case by case basis. Some questions to ask yourself –
Below is a pic showing the improvement by disabling and stripping
Image: Blog Technet Microsoft
Here’s what you need to do –
You’ve discovered hundreds or even thousands of default_error_stack files. What should you do and what are they?
These files tend to be driver errors and can be safely deleted. There were over 2.3 GB of these data files on my personal computer.
Having connection issues and no viruses or malware? Hardware OK?
Try typing the following at a command prompt to fully reset the TCP/IP Stack-
netsh winsock reset
netsh int ip reset
netsh interface ipv4 reset
netsh interface ipv6 reset
netsh interface tcp reset
netsh int reset all
netsh interface tcp set global autotuninglevel=disabled
netsh advfirewall reset
You can also use PowerShell (as an administrator) and type –
Get-NetAdapter | Restart-NetAdapter
If you need system information about your BIOS, Motherboard and more, open PowerShell as an Administrator and past the following into PowerShell –
Get-WMIObject -Class Win32_ComputerSystem
Get-WMIObject -Class Win32_BIOS
Get-WMIObject -Class Win32_Baseboard
Get-WMIObject -Class Win32_Processor
Get-WMIObject -Class Win32_LogicalDisk
Get-WMIObject -Class Win32_DiskDrive
Get-WMIObject -Class Win32_PhysicalMemory
Get-WMIObject -Class Win32_NetworkAdapter
Get-WMIObject -Class Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration
Disclaimer: You must own or have permission to run Ncrack on any network or device. This post is used for educational purposes.
IT admin personnel can test different devices and their setups with ncrack. If devices are set up in a network, services such as SSH, FTP, HTTP, SNMP or others can inadvertently be left on with simplex or default passwords. Many printers and other devices have these default services left on. Some devices such as IoT may have hard coded usernames and passwords.
Ncrack for Linux, Mac or Windows can be found here
If you install Ncrack, you can use common username and password list that come with ncrack. Other lists can be found here. You can use Notepad++ to add usernames or passwords to the lists.
To run Ncrack, you must use (in this case Windows) a command prompt.
Change into the directory that contains Ncrack. In the example below, we have moved the user files and password files into the same folder as the executable.
Below -Ncrack was installed and then moved to the root of c:
The password and user lists were selected and cut.
The password and user lists were then moved (pasted) in the Ncrack folder.
Below is an example of the user file. Remember you can add usernames to the list. You can do the same for the password lists.
To test a router (one that we own), we ran –
ncrack -vv -U minimal.usr -P default.pwd 192.168.1.1:23 (the 23 represents telnet’s port number)
Below you will see the username and password for telnet.
Running ncrack again with port 80 we can see below, two usernames and passwords are given. One for root and one for admin.
Reusing the credentials below show control of a (lab based) router.
How do you protect against this?
Years ago we found GeGeek.com (Credit goes to Rick over at What’s on My PC) and realized that the website and Toolkit was an unreal resource and treasure for young IT Professionals.
Recently we struck a conversation with Jason of GeGeek and asked several questions about this amazing resource. The toolkit, software and website have gotten an overhaul over the years and it continues to be the best resource on the web for enthusiast and professionals. (See our evaluation of the software)
Here’s what Jason has to say –
First and foremost I am not the original developer of GeGeek that was Mike. Mike actually retired from living in the USA and moved to ASIA, GeGeek was to be buried. When I came along I started helping Mike with the website which was completely different and once I took over I started migrating to a new server and updating a lot of the content from the old schema to the new.
The toolkit itself needed a massive overhaul since a lot of the software that was originally with it was either outdated or even contained crapware that the developers didn’t care. So the introduction to shift out a ton of software and bring the toolkit into a later stage with new content.
The other downside was the toolkit was originally distributed with everything included, so every 2 weeks a 1.7gb file was uploaded, not only did this cause havoc on the server but people often complained about the file being corrupted. It was at this time when Mike left that I thought that the toolkit needed a change, I can’t upload 1.7gb, internet in Australia wouldn’t cope lol, so I stripped out the contents then started again, it still wasn’t enough. I’ve stripped back the toolkit now 18 times and no longer a zip file but now an installer. Run, Install, Done.
Every 3 months a new update is released.
I got into computers when I was about 14 and I started computer programming, Visual basic, then Machine Code, Cobol, Fortran, before moving back to Visual Basic. A few years later VB.NET was my new hunger and today strongly using .NET.
Outside of GeGeek I am also a game developer writing on my PC game, yet again more programming and outside of that I am a Computer Technician in a retail store, solving customers riddles with Malware/Spyware and setting up new PC’s.
In the beginning updating the software was time consuming, plus you can’t hotlink to many websites since they forbid it, it was easier for some applications to just host it on our SSL Server, that way I can update everything on the fly. Its amazing how much old equipment I still use as well as new equipment to keep ahead of the times, when VR first came out I jumped onboard with the Oculus, that was several years ago and today I am using the HTC Vive, it’s a fun toy.
For anyone studying IT, keep at it, if you’re interested in any sort of programming, get in there and learn, there are so many different places out there online that offer programming assistance that its all free to learn. Depending on what direction you want to go with IT its a real game changer out there in the world and technology for the world is only just starting, what you learn today you could be one of the people in the future living on Mars or Saturn building a better future for tomorrow.
Jason of GeGeek
Thanks Jason for allowing us to evaluate and test the Kit! We’ll continue to pass this great resource on to hundreds of young IT professionals at our college and we’ll continue to evaluate it over the years.
We did a review of GeGeek’s Toolkit back in 2014 after hearing about the website and toolkit from Rick over at “What’s On My PC’. Recently, Jason of GeGeek reached out to us and gave us the latest release of GeGeek’s Toolkit.
If you haven’t heard about GeGeek’s website or Toolkit, go over and pay him a visit.
Since 2014, the website has undergone an entire revision. With a blog on the home page and hundreds of links and resources for the IT professional or the computer enthusiast, the new website has a ton of topics about every topic you can imagine.
The GeGeek Toolkit download is only around 12 MB in size. However, once you start the installation and updates, there is more than 7 GB of files. While this may take some time to download, you won’t be disappointed.
The installation is straightforward. With over 600 programs, 340+documents and over 500 weblinks, you’ll find that this program contains tools that will meet all of your needs.
With three installation types, you can select typical, custom or full. For this installation, we selected the complete installation to try out all of the programs.
After selecting the ‘type’ of installation you want, select the Next button.
The Windows UAC may appear, select Yes to continue with the setup.
During the installation, GeGeek will create a folder under your C drive. You can copy the folder to a USB drive to use the programs while on the go.
Once files are copied to your HDD or SSD, you can finish the installation and begin the updates.
After installing and starting the program, you’ll see a floating icon on your desktop that allows you to move the icon anywhere on your desktop.
This icon along with the toolbar icon allows you to access the tools found in GeGeek.
Once we started the program, we immediately went to the configuration settings and selected to update the programs. You can begin the update by pressing the run icon found in the SyMenu .
Once you press the update button, a Window appeared to update the programs.
The Update screen allows you to select which programs to update or you can select all of the programs found in the software inventory.
The update process is smooth and error free. Progress bars next to each software title allows you to see the progress of the updates.
So what are the programs found in GeGeek? Everything you can imagine. This Toolkit is a must have. Go over and check them out at GeGeek.com