An introduction to Big Data – RackSpace’s CloudU MOOC

CloudU

Several years ago we introduced you to CloudU. A perfect introduction to how the ‘cloud’ works.  CloudU by RackSpace now has a MOOC (Mass Open Online Course) that introduces you to Big Data.

According to Wikipedia, Big Data is a term used to describe a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications. Thats a great definition but its only one. This topic is too big to base this learning series on one definition so we asked the brightest minds in academia and the cloud industry the same question, “What is Big Data”? We are confident you will enjoy their insights and take away a broader perspective on big data.       Sign up, it’s free (Link)

Earlier Post

“After contacting Rackspace so that my students could benefit from the cloud university curriculum as a supplement.   I was met with open arms and personally talked with Greg Alfaro, Michael Ferranti and Ben Kepes either by phone or email.   Here’s a quote from Ben. - “CloudU is an excellent resource for anyone wanting to learn about Cloud Computing. As an instructor of information technology, the certificate provides a great learning tool for the planning, deployment and logistics behind cloud computing.”    ~ Ben Kepes

Commands in Telnet – DD-WRT and Tomato routers

If you have flashed your router with DD-WRT or Tomato you can probably use the following linux commands in the picture below.

Before you get started, you’ll need to enable Telnet client on your Windows computer.  Go to Programs and Features under the Control Panel.   Telnet client is found under add/remove features.

If you want to capture the information to a local Windows computer, during the telnet session, make a folder on your C: drive named telnet.  Then type :

telnet youripaddress -f c:\telnet\capture.txt

Enter your username and password.

Want to see the commands that are available?  Type ls /*bin /*/*bin . – ls will list the commands and used with bin will give the commands found in the different directories that have ‘bin’ in the name.

commands

While there are hundreds of command options for both operating systems, they are primarily Linux.

Here’s a great list – link.  (Not all commands will work)

uname -a gives the Linux version

Linux

 

Want to see a ton of information about your router?  Type sysinfo | more

This will give you information about the system including CPU, memory, network and a ton of other information.

unknown login: root
Password:
Tomato v1.28.0000 MIPSR2-120 K26 Max
========================================================
Welcome to the Linksys E2000 [TomatoUSB]
Uptime: 00:39:53 up 1:54
Load average: 0.16, 0.03, 0.01
Mem usage: 30.8% (used 8.88 of 28.84 MB)
WAN : 192.168.0.3/24 @ C0:C1:C0:xx:xx:xx
LAN : 192.168.1.1/24 @ DHCP: 192.168.1.2 – 192.168.1.51
WL0 : Zeus @ channel: 6 @ C0:C1:C0:xx:xx:xx
========================================================
root@unknown:/tmp/home/root# ls /*bin
/bin:
ash date fgrep ls netstat ping sed udpxy
busybox dd grep mdu nice ping6 sh umount
cat df gunzip mkdir ntpc ps sleep uname
chmod dmesg gzip mknod ntpstep pwd stty usleep
chown eapd kill more ntpsync rm sync vi
cp echo ln mount nvram rmdir tar watch
cstats egrep login mv pidof rstats touch zcat
/sbin:
arp hotplug mtd-erase sched
buttons hotplug2 mtd-unlock service
console ifconfig mtd-write setconsole
ddns-update init ppp_event syslogd
dhcp6c-state insmod radio udevtrigger
dhcpc-event klogd rc udhcpc
dhcpc-release led rcheck vconfig
dhcpc-renew listen reboot wldist
disconnected_pppoe lsmod redial
gpio modprobe rmmod
halt mount-cifs route
root@unknown:/tmp/home/root# sysinfo
Tomato v1.28.0000 MIPSR2-120 K26 Max
Linux version 2.6.22.19 (root@tomato) (gcc version 4.2.4) #37 Sat Jun 7 05:30:28
CEST 2014
NVRAM
1012 entries, 21604 bytes used, 39836 bytes free.
INTERFACES
br0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr C0:C1:C0:xx:xx:xx
inet addr:192.168.1.1 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:185075 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:166658 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:21559405 (20.5 MiB) TX bytes:160278768 (152.8 MiB)
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr C0:C1:C0xx:xx:xx
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:165763 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:175648 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:161724476 (154.2 MiB) TX bytes:22794209 (21.7 MiB)
Interrupt:4 Base address:0×2000
eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr C0:C1:C0:xx:xx:xx
UP BROADCAST RUNNING ALLMULTI MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:235085 errors:10 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:269509
TX packets:234875 errors:72 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:56724666 (54.0 MiB) TX bytes:201731456 (192.3 MiB)
Interrupt:3 Base address:0×1000
lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:87 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:87 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:13018 (12.7 KiB) TX bytes:13018 (12.7 KiB)
vlan1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr C0:C1:C0:xx:xx:xx
UP BROADCAST RUNNING ALLMULTI MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:7418 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:16101 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:5137752 (4.8 MiB) TX bytes:1536952 (1.4 MiB)
vlan2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr C0:C1:C0xx:xx:xx
inet addr:192.168.0.3 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:158047 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:159142 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:153556156 (146.4 MiB) TX bytes:21209557 (20.2 MiB)
ROUTING TABLE
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
192.168.0.1 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 vlan2
192.168.1.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 br0
192.168.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 vlan2
127.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 U 0 0 0 lo
0.0.0.0 192.168.0.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 vlan2
Kernel IPv6 routing table
Destination Next Hop
Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
::1/128 ::
U 0 0 1 lo
ARP TABLE
192.168.0.1 dev vlan2 lladdr 00:09:5b:cd:50:40 REACHABLE
192.168.1.38 dev br0 lladdr 68:5d:43:e7:83:44 REACHABLE
IP TABLES
:filter
Chain INPUT (policy DROP 403 packets, 193K bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

692 61801 DROP all — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
state INVALID
10214 1655K ACCEPT all — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
0 0 shlimit tcp — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
tcp dpt:22 state NEW
14 2052 ACCEPT all — lo * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0

6522 793K ACCEPT all — br0 * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0

0 0 ACCEPT udp — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
udp spt:67 dpt:68
Chain FORWARD (policy DROP 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

253K 139M all — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
account: network/netmask: 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 name: lan
0 0 ACCEPT all — br0 br0 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0

59 2360 DROP all — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
state INVALID
9434 453K TCPMSS tcp — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
tcp flags:0×06/0×02 TCPMSS clamp to PMTU
128K 15M monitor all — * vlan2 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0

249K 138M ACCEPT all — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
0 0 wanin all — vlan2 * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0

4738 223K wanout all — * vlan2 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0

4738 223K ACCEPT all — br0 * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 12586 packets, 5087K bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain monitor (1 references)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

0 0 RETURN tcp — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
WEBMON –max_domains 2000 –max_searches 2000
Chain shlimit (1 references)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

0 0 all — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
recent: SET name: shlimit side: source
0 0 DROP all — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
recent: UPDATE seconds: 60 hit_count: 4 name: shlimit side: source
Chain wanin (1 references)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain wanout (1 references)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

:nat
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT 9977 packets, 1113K bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

403 193K WANPREROUTING all — * * 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.
0.3
0 0 DROP all — vlan2 * 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.1.0/
24
Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT 10 packets, 1912 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

6165 323K MASQUERADE all — * vlan2 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0

26 8531 SNAT all — * br0 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.1.0/
24 to:192.168.1.1
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 1812 packets, 127K bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain WANPREROUTING (1 references)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

0 0 DNAT icmp — * * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
to:192.168.1.1
:mangle
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT 273K packets, 142M bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

128K 124M DSCP all — vlan2 * 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0
DSCP set 0×00
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 17877 packets, 2707K bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 253K packets, 139M bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 12618 packets, 5092K bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT 266K packets, 144M bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

IP6 TABLES
:filter
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

:mangle
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination

NET STATS
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State
tcp 0 0 192.168.1.1:80 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:53 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:22 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 :::53 :::* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 :::22 :::* LISTEN
tcp 0 0 :::23 :::* LISTEN
udp 0 0 127.0.0.1:38032 0.0.0.0:*
udp 0 0 0.0.0.0:53 0.0.0.0:*
udp 0 0 0.0.0.0:67 0.0.0.0:*
udp 0 0 127.0.0.1:38000 0.0.0.0:*
udp 0 0 :::53 :::*
raw 0 0 0.0.0.0:255 0.0.0.0:* 255
Active UNIX domain sockets (only servers)
Proto RefCnt Flags Type State I-Node Path
FILE SYSTEMS
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/root 5056 5056 0 100% /
tmpfs 14764 172 14592 1% /tmp
devfs 14764 0 14764 0% /dev
MOUNTPOINTS
rootfs on / type rootfs (rw)
/dev/root on / type squashfs (ro)
proc on /proc type proc (rw)
tmpfs on /tmp type tmpfs (rw)
devfs on /dev type tmpfs (rw,noatime)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw)
SWAPS
Filename Type Size Used Priority
PARTITIONS
major minor #blocks name
31 0 256 mtdblock0
31 1 7872 mtdblock1
31 2 5091 mtdblock2
31 3 1856 mtdblock3
31 4 64 mtdblock4
ENVIRONMENT
USER=root
HOME=/root
PS1=\u@\h:\w\$
LOGNAME=root
TERM=vt100
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/home/root:/mmc/sbin:/mmc/bin:/mmc/usr/sbin:/
mmc/usr/bin:/opt/sbin:/opt/bin:/opt/usr/sbin:/opt/usr/bin:
SHELL=/bin/sh
PWD=/tmp/home/root
CPU INFO
0.12 0.03 0.01 2/32 3739
system type : Broadcom BCM4716 chip rev 1 pkg 9
processor : 0
cpu model : MIPS 74K V4.0
BogoMIPS : 176.53
cpu MHz : 354
wait instruction : no
microsecond timers : yes
tlb_entries : 64
extra interrupt vector : no
hardware watchpoint : yes
ASEs implemented : mips16 dsp
shadow register sets : 1
VCED exceptions : not available
VCEI exceptions : not available
unaligned_instructions : 4
INTERRUPTS
CPU0
3: 770819 MIPS eth1
4: 298897 MIPS eth0
7: 687164 MIPS timer
8: 13 IRQ2 serial
ERR: 0
MEMORY
total used free shared buffers
Mem: 29532 18664 10868 0 2464
-/+ buffers: 16200 13332
Swap: 0 0 0
MemTotal: 29532 kB
MemFree: 10864 kB
Buffers: 2464 kB
Cached: 7112 kB
SwapCached: 0 kB
Active: 6188 kB
Inactive: 5336 kB
SwapTotal: 0 kB
SwapFree: 0 kB
Dirty: 0 kB
Writeback: 0 kB
AnonPages: 1952 kB
Mapped: 1592 kB
Slab: 4228 kB
SReclaimable: 676 kB
SUnreclaim: 3552 kB
PageTables: 284 kB
NFS_Unstable: 0 kB
Bounce: 0 kB
CommitLimit: 14764 kB
Committed_AS: 5068 kB
VmallocTotal: 786356 kB
VmallocUsed: 2404 kB
VmallocChunk: 782068 kB
WIRELESS VER
5.10 RC147.0
wl0: Mar 4 2010 00:00:47 version 5.10.147.0
US (US/0) UNITED STATES
LOADED MODULES
Module Size Used by Tainted: P
xt_webmon 16320 1
xt_DSCP 992 1
ip6table_mangle 992 0
ip6table_filter 704 0
xt_recent 6800 2
xt_IMQ 736 0
imq 2320 0
nf_nat_pptp 1440 0
nf_conntrack_pptp 3808 1 nf_nat_pptp
nf_nat_proto_gre 1072 1 nf_nat_pptp
nf_conntrack_proto_gre 2464 1 nf_conntrack_pptp
nf_nat_ftp 1568 0
nf_conntrack_ftp 5792 1 nf_nat_ftp
nf_nat_sip 5920 0
nf_conntrack_sip 19008 1 nf_nat_sip
nf_nat_h323 5504 0
nf_conntrack_h323 37120 1 nf_nat_h323
wl 1781264 0
et 49280 0
igs 13680 1 wl
emf 17408 2 wl,igs
PROCESSES
Mem: 18812K used, 10720K free, 0K shrd, 2464K buff, 7112K cached
CPU: 0% usr 0% sys 0% nic 100% idle 0% io 0% irq 0% sirq
Load average: 0.12 0.03 0.01 1/32 3757
PID PPID USER STAT VSZ %VSZ %CPU COMMAND
1609 1 root S 2684 9% 0% httpd
2031 1 root S 1312 4% 0% crond -l 9
1612 1611 root S 1304 4% 0% -sh
3564 434 root S 1304 4% 0% -sh
1610 1 root S 1304 4% 0% udhcpc -i vlan2 -b -s dhcpc-event -H u
nknown -m
314 313 root S 1300 4% 0% /bin/sh
434 1 root S 1296 4% 0% telnetd -p 23
3676 3564 root S 1296 4% 0% {sysinfo} /bin/sh /usr/sbin/sysinfo
3757 3676 root R 1296 4% 0% top -b -n1
2018 1 root S 1292 4% 0% syslogd -L -s 50 -b 1
2020 1 root S 1292 4% 0% klogd
1 0 root S 1260 4% 0% /sbin/init noinitrd
312 1 root S 1244 4% 0% buttons
313 1 root S 1184 4% 0% console
1611 496 root S 1140 4% 0% dropbear -p 22 -a
1295 1 nobody S 1104 4% 0% dnsmasq -c 1500 –log-async
1225 1 root S 1080 4% 0% nas
496 1 root S 1072 4% 0% dropbear -p 22 -a
1242 1 root S 968 3% 0% cstats
1236 1 root S 916 3% 0% rstats
1222 1 root S 900 3% 0% eapd
273 1 root S 616 2% 0% hotplug2 –persistent –no-coldplug
87 2 root SW< 0 0% 0% [mtdblockd]
3 2 root SW< 0 0% 0% [ksoftirqd/0]
5 2 root SW< 0 0% 0% [khelper]
42 2 root SW 0 0% 0% [pdflush]
44 2 root SW< 0 0% 0% [kswapd0]
2 0 root SW< 0 0% 0% [kthreadd]
43 2 root SW 0 0% 0% [pdflush]
4 2 root SW< 0 0% 0% [events/0]
45 2 root SW< 0 0% 0% [aio/0]
18 2 root SW< 0 0% 0% [kblockd/0]
DMESG
Linux version 2.6.22.19 (root@tomato) (gcc version 4.2.4) #37 Sat Jun 7 05:30:28
CEST 2014
CPU revision is: 00019740
Found a 8MB ST compatible serial flash
Determined physical RAM map:
memory: 02000000 @ 00000000 (usable)
On node 0 totalpages: 8192
Normal zone: 64 pages used for memmap
Normal zone: 0 pages reserved
Normal zone: 8128 pages, LIFO batch:0
Built 1 zonelists. Total pages: 8128
Kernel command line: root=/dev/mtdblock2 noinitrd console=ttyS0,115200
Primary instruction cache 32kB, physically tagged, 4-way, linesize 32 bytes.
Primary data cache 32kB, 4-way, linesize 32 bytes.
Synthesized TLB refill handler (20 instructions).
Synthesized TLB load handler fastpath (32 instructions).
Synthesized TLB store handler fastpath (32 instructions).
Synthesized TLB modify handler fastpath (31 instructions).
PID hash table entries: 128 (order: 7, 512 bytes)
CPU: BCM4716 rev 1 pkg 9 at 354 MHz
Using 177.000 MHz high precision timer.
console [ttyS0] enabled
Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
Inode-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
Memory: 29416k/32768k available (33k kernel code, 3352k reserved, 2718k data, 11
6k init, 0k highmem)
Calibrating delay loop… 176.53 BogoMIPS (lpj=882688)
Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
NET: Registered protocol family 16
PCI: Using membase 8000000
PCI: Disabled
PCI: Fixing up bus 0
PCI: Fixing up bus 1
NET: Registered protocol family 2
Time: MIPS clocksource has been installed.
IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
TCP reno registered
squashfs: version 3.0 (2006/03/15) Phillip Lougher
io scheduler noop registered (default)
HDLC line discipline: version $Revision: 4.8 $, maxframe=4096
N_HDLC line discipline registered.
Serial: 8250/16550 driver $Revision: 1.90 $ 2 ports, IRQ sharing disabled
serial8250: ttyS0 at MMIO 0xb8000300 (irq = 8) is a 16550A
PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
MPPE/MPPC encryption/compression module registered
NET: Registered protocol family 24
PPPoL2TP kernel driver, V0.18.3
PPTP driver version 0.8.5
pflash: found no supported devices
Creating 5 MTD partitions on “sflash”:
0×00000000-0×00040000 : “pmon”
0×00040000-0x007f0000 : “linux”
0×00127400-0×00620000 : “rootfs”
0×00620000-0x007f0000 : “jffs2″
0x007f0000-0×00800000 : “nvram”
u32 classifier
OLD policer on
Netfilter messages via NETLINK v0.30.
nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (512 buckets, 4096 max)
ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
ipt_account 0.1.21 : Piotr Gasidlo <quaker@barbara.eu.org>, http://www.barbara.e
u.org/~quaker/ipt_account/
net/ipv4/netfilter/tomato_ct.c [Jun 7 2014 02:58:57]
NET: Registered protocol family 1
NET: Registered protocol family 10
ip6_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
NET: Registered protocol family 17
802.1Q VLAN Support v1.8 Ben Greear <greearb@candelatech.com>
All bugs added by David S. Miller <davem@redhat.com>
VFS: Mounted root (squashfs filesystem) readonly.
Freeing unused kernel memory: 116k freed
Warning: unable to open an initial console.
emf: module license ‘Proprietary’ taints kernel.
PCI: Setting latency timer of device 0000:00:02.0 to 64
eth0: Broadcom BCM47XX 10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet Controller 5.10.147.0
PCI: Setting latency timer of device 0000:00:01.0 to 64
eth1: Broadcom BCM4328 802.11 Wireless Controller 5.10.147.0
Algorithmics/MIPS FPU Emulator v1.5
vlan1: add 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address to master interface
vlan1: add 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address to master interface
vlan1: dev_set_allmulti(master, 1)
vlan1: dev_set_promiscuity(master, 1)
device eth0 entered promiscuous mode
device vlan1 entered promiscuous mode
device eth1 entered promiscuous mode
br0: port 2(eth1) entering forwarding state
br0: port 1(vlan1) entering forwarding state
vlan2: Setting MAC address to c0 c1 c0 xx:xx:xx.
vlan2: add 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address to master interface
vlan2: add 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address to master interface
IMQ starting with 2 devices…
IMQ driver loaded successfully.
Hooking IMQ after NAT on PREROUTING.
Hooking IMQ before NAT on POSTROUTING.
vlan2: del 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address from vlan interface
vlan2: del 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address from master interface
vlan2: del 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address from vlan interface
vlan2: del 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address from master interface
vlan2: Setting MAC address to c0 c1 c0 xx:xx:xx.
vlan2: add 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address to master interface
vlan2: add 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address to master interface
vlan2: del 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address from vlan interface
vlan2: del 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address from master interface
vlan2: del 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address from vlan interface
vlan2: del 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address from master interface
br0: port 2(eth1) entering disabled state
br0: port 1(vlan1) entering disabled state
vlan1: del 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address from vlan interface
vlan1: del 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address from master interface
vlan1: del 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address from vlan interface
vlan1: del 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address from master interface
device vlan1 left promiscuous mode
br0: port 1(vlan1) entering disabled state
device eth1 left promiscuous mode
br0: port 2(eth1) entering disabled state
vlan1: add 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address to master interface
vlan1: add 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address to master interface
device eth1 entered promiscuous mode
br0: port 2(eth1) entering forwarding state
br0: port 1(vlan1) entering forwarding state
vlan2: Setting MAC address to c0 c1 c0 xx:xx:xx.
vlan2: add 33:33:00:00:00:01 mcast address to master interface
vlan2: add 01:00:5e:00:00:01 mcast address to master interface

 

Can Hackers Steal Secrets from Reflections?

I encourage my students to go over and visit Rick, Paul and Bill’s blog.  In 2009, Rick posted a link to a Scientific American article on How Hackers Steal Secrets from Reflections.   Great Article.  With our students going through some of the best security courses available, these links are very valuable.

Although we used a mirror for this example, we have tried glasses and other reflective materials and you can take a picture and reverse the photo.

Reverse Image

Reversed with Irfanview

Corrected with IRFanview

Create a roaming profile – Windows 7, 8, Server 2008 R2

Don’t forget, the fastest hard drive without IPv6 ….check your network info here

Attached are guides on creating a roaming profile with Windows 7 and Server 2008 r2.

(Thanks to Mr. Ledlow for creating these)

Guides are in PDF
Step One Create a User on the Domain

Step Two Creating a Folder on the Domain

Step Three Creating the Profile

Step Four Join the Domain

A roaming profile allows the domain user to login and keep their preferences regardless of where they login.

See our review of Windows 8 and see how you can run 90% of your programs, virtualize other operating systems, use your network and more.

Also go and Tweak your wireless!!

 

RichardKok  Reset a Roaming Profile

Other info

http://www.grouppolicy.biz/2010/08/best-practice-roaming-profiles-and-folder-redirection-a-k-a-user-virtualization/

http://blogs.technet.com/b/askds/archive/2008/06/17/user-profile-policies-in-windows-server-2008-and-windows-vista.aspx

http://blogs.technet.com/b/askds/archive/2008/06/30/automatic-creation-of-user-folders-for-home-roaming-profile-and-redirected-folders.aspx

http://support.microsoft.com/kb/555046

77 Windows tips

Technet has a list of 77 Windows tips, don’t close the tips out too soon, you’ll find things you may not know how to do.   Although most of these are old if you have discovered Windows 7, many people still don’t know about many of these tips.

Know what Robocopy is?  How about a search connector?  perfmon /report or permon /rel?   Link

Free-Windows Server 2012 R2 Technet Document -7970 pages

Want to know how to be an administrator of Windows Server 2012 R2?  This 7900+ page document has everything you want to know about Microsoft’s latest server.  Included in this massive manual is-

  • Technical Scenarios
  • Install and Deploy Windows Server
  • Migrate Roles and Features to Windows Server
  • Secure Windows Server
  • Manage Privacy in Windows Server
  • Support and Troubleshoot Windows Server
  • Server Roles and Technologies
  • Management and Tools for Windows Server

Download Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2012 TechNet Library Documentation here.  111 mb

Microsoft also offers free virtual labs (Virtual Microsoft Server from your browser).  Coupled with this 7900+ page manual, this is an excellent resource to learn Windows Server 2012.

If you want to print this, it will take approximately 16 reams of paper and 3.25 high capacity laser toner cartridges.  Of course once you print it, you’ll have your first 32″ wide book.

Did you really complete your Windows installation?

While we cannot cover every scenario there is, this is a general setup of  a Windows 7 or 8 computer.

  • Check all drivers under the Device Manager
    Get the latest drivers for performance
  • Optimize Network Card Configuration– Disable all but flow control
  • Disable NTLM if connecting to older NAS or SANS devices
  • Disable LLMNR - improves network performance and connections to SQL
  • Load Banner if you have a business (legal banner at computer start)
  • Load all Windows updates
  • Run Cleanup of Service Packs after Service Pack updates are installed
    (Information here or DISM /online /cleanup-Image /spsuperseded at a command prompt)
  • Load Microsoft Hotfix 90 patches if Windows 7
    • This enterprise hotfix is for WebDAV, DFSN client, Folder Redirection, Offline Files and Folders, SMB client, Redirected Drive Buffering Subsystem, Multiple UNC Provider, SMB Service, TCP protocol components (Network Performance), processing of Group Policies, Group Policy preferences, helps to reduce network load and domain load, WMI and more.
  • Hard drive cache on if not SSD Drive
    (Device Manager – double click and make sure checkboxes under policies are checked)
  • TRIM enabled if SSD and disable defrag if SSD
  • Load Defraggler or Auslogics defrag (Third party defrag program) if non SSD
  • USB Power Management off – Device Manager
  • Adjust other Power Management as necessary
  • Printer installation
  • Check to see if your BIOS supports AHCI -(if so, boot into Windows, modify the registry, then change the BIOS to AHCI) – more information
  • Office installation – Always select custom during installation and select all features – complete installation
  • Set Homepage in your Browser
  • Install Adobe Reader
  • Install Flash
  • Install Java
  • Install CCleaner
  • Cryptolocker protection
  • Install Anti-virus software (Microsoft Security Essentials)
  • Install Anti-malware protection (SuperAntispyware or Malwarebytes)
  • Rename computer and put in workgroup or domain as necessary
  • Enable the Administrator’s account
  • Edit the Hosts and LMHOSTS file under C:\Windows\system32\drivers\etc as necessary
    Type in server IP and NetBIOS name (speeds up name resolution if local DNS is not available)

Note: This does NOT contain all of the information you may need when in a business environment.

How to audit a folder in Windows

When networking shared resources, you should audit the individual folders you are sharing out.  This allows you to ‘see’ who is using the folders and how files are being manipulated.

How to Audit User Access of Files, Folders, and Printers

The audit log appears in the Security log in Event Viewer. To enable logging:

  1. Click Start, go to the Control Panel, click on Performance and Maintenance, and  click Administrative Tools.
  2. Open the Local Security Policy.
  3. In the left pane, double-click Local Policies.
  4. Click Audit Policy to display the individual policy settings.
  5. Click Audit object access.
  6. Select the Success check box on items you would like to monitor.
  7. Select the Failure check box on items you would like to monitor.
  8. You can select both check boxes to audit Success and Failures.
  9. Click OK.

How to Specify Files, Folders, and Printers to Audit

Once you enable auditing, you can specify the files, folders, or printers that you want audited. :

  1. Locate the file or folder you want to audit. To audit a printer, locate it by clicking Start, and  clicking Printers and Faxes.
  2. Right-click the file, folder, or printer you want to monitor (audit) , click Properties.
  3. Click on the Security tab, and  click the advanced button.
  4. Click on the Auditing tab, and  click on add.
  5. Clicking Advanced, and  click Find Now -navigate to the person or group you would like to audit.
  6. Click OK.
  7. Select the Successful or Failed check boxes (select the ones you want)click OK.
  8. Click OK,  click OK.
You can now look under the Event Viewer and ‘see’ what users are doing.
Remember when creating a VPN or sharing a folder- you always want to audit a folder or file.

Windows Hotfix Rollup with 90 updates for Windows 7 and Server 2008

The Microsoft Update may show that your computer is up-to-date but you may be able to improve system stability and performance with these 90 updates for Windows 7 and Server 2008 with a hotfix that was released earlier in 2013.  

This enterprise hotfix fix WebDAV, DFSN client, Folder Redirection, Offline Files and Folders, SMB client, Redirected Drive Buffering Subsystem, Multiple UNC Provider, SMB Service, TCP protocol components (Network Performance), processing of Group Policies, Group Policy preferences, helps to reduce network load and domain load, WMI and more.

Information on the hotfix is here - (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2775511/en-us)

Where do you get the hotfix?  The hotfix can be downloaded here.  You MUST use Internet Explorer to apply the hotfix.  The hotfix from the Windows Update Catalog requires you to install components to download the files of your choice.

Microsoft Update Catalog

 

Install

 

Available updates

 

Progress

 

After downloading the update, you will need to double click the installation file and after the hotfix is applied, you must restart your computer.

Tweak your wireless router

Many people who set up their wireless routers never optimize the channel to keep from ‘bumping’ into their neighbors.  Regardless if you are a Apple, Linux or Windows user, you should select a channel as far away from your neighbors devices as you can.   Use WiFi Analyzer for Android, (Apple), or InSSIDer for a PC to see what channels are being used around your home or business.

The second tip is involves fragmentation..   We don’t have one or two internet devices anymore, we have four or more.   Computers, laptops, netbooks, e-readers such as Kindles or Nooks, iPods, iPhones, Android tablets, iPads, Android, Windows Phones, Blurays, TVs and more.    So how can this be optimized?   These devices send packets of data in frames.

Imagine you talking.   Each word is a packet and the packets together are a sentence.   In a wireless environment, each device has to wait for the other to complete their sentence before it can talk.

Computer talking to router – ” I am going to WordPress to read a blog!”

Tablet waits on router and says – “I want to go to YouTube!”

Your router listens to the computer while the tablet is waiting.   The router processes the computer’s request and then listens to the tablet.   So how can this be optimized?

The default fragmentation for routers is 2346.  Many professionals recommend to set this at 800 or 1000 if there are many devices on your network.   So your router should work like this -

Computer and Tablet say – “I am going to – I want to go to – WordPress to read – YouTube! – a blog!”

See how each device gets a small piece of what it wants to say in to the router?  The router can process the information a little at a time keeping each devices wait time down.   This in  turn works with the RTS Threshold.

The RTS Threshold is  used as a trigger to engage the back and forth of RTS (Ready to Send – “I have something to say”) and CTS (Clear to Send – “I am listening”) messages between the wireless router  and  your device.  The trigger’s purpose is a type of “handshaking”.   The default value for RTS is 2347.   Try 2340 and lower as necessary. 

Note: Before changing these defaults, remember – you can reset these if you cannot connect.  Read your owner’s manual on how to reset your router in the event you have connectivity problems.  Every situation is different.  

Here’s my settings on Fragmentation and RTS Threshold.

wireless

The preamble should be set to short.   Long is for 802.11b  devices (old legacy laptops or devices).  Auto is just in case you have someone with old computers that are coming into your home.   Auto works for old and new.   Generally older devices today have 802.11g.   802.11g and 802.11n work with long.   So if you don’t anticipate someone visiting with older devices, move the preamble to short.

DTIM is a traffic indicator.  It basically says – “Yo, I got something for you” during the beacon.  Setting this 1 point higher can actually save power when devices are listening.   So the device will awaken only when DTIM tells it to.

These settings are for people who have several devices on their network and are true consumers of the internet.   They are by no means the settings for everyone.   You may have to play with the settings to get optimal throughput.  Remember, test your bandwidth with two devices side by side and simultaneously.   Have each device strain your network by testing their throughput by going to an ISP site that test download speeds or stream a video at the same time.  You’ll see a difference.   The default values very well may be what you need if you don’t have many users and devices.

Give it a try.  You can always go back to your routers default values.

MySQL Upgrade in Windows

Dawn and I faced a MySQL Upgrade for our Moodle LMS site and delayed as long as we could.   Unlike traditional upgrades of Microsoft SQL, we couldn’t simply click a setup file and the upgrade would replace files and services  as needed.

Here’s the easiest process we found to upgrade MySQL

  1. Stop the existing MySQL service in Services
  2. Make sure you have a backup  of you MySQL database
  3. Open a command prompt (as administrator)
  4. change to the MySQL directory and type mysqld –remove  (to remove the service under services) you can also remove it by using the SC Delete MySQL command.
    1. In the Service manager you should see that the service is removed.
  5. Uninstall MySQL under the Programs and Features menu
  6. Delete all folders under programdata and program files that are related to MySQL
  7. Reboot
  8. Make sure the latest .NET Framework is installed
  9. Download and run the MySQL Community package  Link
  10. Perform a new install
  11. Use the Server type:  Server  (Production deployments)
  12. Make sure your data directories are specified during the installation
  13. Use the same root password you had on the old installation
  14. Add  admin users as necessary
  15. Restore your files if necessary (backups) with MySQL Workbench Link
  16. Complete the install
  17. Make sure the service is running

Note: Always make a backup before trying to update the database.

 

SQLPanel

Why autotuning may slow your computer down

First off, how does the Receive Windows Auto-Tuning work?    This feature basically lets Windows monitor the routing conditions in your network.   Conditions can be things such as application delay, network delay or actual bandwidth.  This allows connections to be configured by Windows thus scaling the TCP receive window to take advantage of your network performance.

This seems like it could be a great feature.   Here’s the catch.  If the Receive Windows Auto-Tuning feature is enabled for your HTTP traffic, some older firewalls, routers or even older operating systems may cause a slow data transfer — even if the devices are beyond your organizations, WAN, LAN or network.  Microsoft notes that this issue (latency) will remain.

So how can you disable this feature?  Open a command prompt as an administrator.  Type the following in the open window:

netsh interface tcp set global autotuninglevel=disabled

 

Autotuning

Reboot your computer

 

 

 

 

Link – Although this says Vista, disabling Autotuning may improve performance – even on Windows 7